The answer to this question is not as simple as you might think. Honey is a super-saturated sugar solution, meaning that it contains more sugar than can be dissolved in the water. When honey is first produced by bees, it actually contains very little sugar. The bees add enzymes to the nectar which break down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars. This process makes the nectar more digestible for the bees and also starts the process of crystallization.
The vast majority of honey is made up of two simple sugars, fructose and glucose. Fructose is the sweeter of the two, while glucose has a more complex flavor. When these two sugars are dissolved in water, they form a solution that is supersaturated with sugar. This means that there is more sugar in the solution than can be dissolved.
The process of crystallization occurs when the molecules of sugar in the honey start to bond together and form crystals. The crystals act as nuclei around which the molecules of sugar can align themselves. As more and more crystals are formed, the honey becomes more and more viscous.
The rate at which honey crystallizes depends on the ratio of fructose to glucose. Honey with a high fructose to glucose ratio will crystallize more slowly than honey with a lower ratio. Additionally, the addition of any impurities, such as pollen or dust, can also act as nuclei around which crystals can form.
If you find that your honey has crystallized, don’t worry! It is still perfectly safe to eat. Simply place the honey jar in a pot of warm water and stir until the crystals have dissolved. You can also put the honey in the microwave for a few seconds, but be careful not to overheat it as this can damage the delicate flavor of the honey.